T-LOVE: Critical Thinking Instructional Model Based on the Kalama Sutta Approach for Thai Teachers


  • Supa Thaikeow
  • Chalong Tubsree
  • Somsak Lila


Critical thinking, Instructional model


ABSTRACT              The purpose of this study was to develop a Critical Thinking Instructional Model based on the Kalama Sutta Approach for Thai teachers. A mixed-methods sequential exploratory strategy was employed with qualitative in-depth interviews of 18 Buddhist experts. Data analysis was done by using In vivo and focused coding analysis. Quantitative investigation was conducted by using questionnaires measuring 309 teachers’ opinions towards the proposed model, analyzing the data with the secondorder confirmatory factor analysis. The implementation of the model was conducted by using two instruments: five KSACT Lesson Plans were employed to teach 30 Mathayomsuksa two students, and the KSACT-Test was administered before and after the instruction. The findings revealed that the Critical Thinking Instructional Model, based on the Kalama Sutta Approach for Thai teachers, was integrated in a model of “T-LOVE”, comprising of five steps: T-Train the Mind; L- Learn the Situations; O-Observe Assumptions; V-Verify Morals; and E-Extend Vision. The validation of the model indicated an acceptable goodness of fit. The effectiveness of the model indicated that students taught with the T-LOVE model earned higher critical thinking ability scores than on the pre-test at the .05 level of statistical significance.

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