Comparison of the Effects of Implicit and Explicit Phonics Instruction on English Achievement in Reading and Writing (Spelling) of Primary Students


  • Natkristha Intarakulchai
  • Prapart Brudhiprabha
  • Arnon Chaisuriya


English achievement, Quasi-experimental, Implicit phonics instruction, Explicit phonics instruction


           The purposes of this study were to compare the English achievement of the students by using two different teaching approaches between implicit and explicit phonics instruction in Grade 1 and Grade 2, and to compare the students’ achievement in reading (read aloud), and writing (spelling) by using implicit and explicit phonics instruction. The study used a quasi-experimental design with experimental and control groups. The sample, derived by means of the Krejcie and Morganc (1970) technique and purposive sampling method, consisted of 169 Grade 1and Grade 2 students (Grade 1 = 85, Grade 2 = 84), studying at Piboonbumpen Demonstration School at Burapha University in the second semester of academic year 2015. The sample was divided into the experimental and control groups (Experimental group = 169; Control group = 131). The experimental group was taught by using explicit phonics instruction while the control group used the implicit teaching approach. The instruments used were a lesson plan and materials for explicit phonics instruction, the Grade 1 and Grade 2 students’ English Achievement Test, the reading (read aloud), and the writing (spelling) tests. Mean, standard deviation, percentage, and t-test were the students’ achievement in reading statistical devices employed for the data analysis. The findings indicated that the students both in Grade 1 and Grade 2 learning through explicit phonics instructions had significantly higher English achievement than those learning through implicit phonics instruction at the .05 level. In addition, the achievement of both reading and writing skills of the students learning by using explicit phonics instruction was also found significantly higher than those taught through implicit phonics instruction in both Grade 1 and Grade 2 at the .05 level.

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